Monty Roberts in his book “The Man Who Listens to Horses” in recounting how he developed his “Join Up” method of training, writes of observing what he termed a dominant mare in a herd of wild horses on the high plains, driving a young stallion out of the herd that had been biting and kicking the other horses. After she chased him away, the mare returned to the herd and stared at the colt until he licked his lips, at which point, on an incremental basis, she relaxed her gaze and stiff body posture and eventually allowed him to return. Thereafter, he was responsive to the other horses “signals” and no longer disruptive. Monty Roberts interpreted the lip licking as a signal of submission, an act of appeasement by the colt that demonstrated its acknowledgment of the rules of the herd. However, given what Pavlov discovered, is there another interpretation? In other words, what was going on in the mind of the young stallion when it was licking its lips?