If you hold a treat above a dog, 10 out of 10 hungry dogs will quickly learn to sit. If you then hold out a little longer while simultaneously encouraging the dog to “Speak”, 8-to-9 out of ten dogs will quickly do so. Why? — and — How?
(Note that one doesn’t have to “capture” the behavior in some other context in order to “put it on cue” as learning theorists advocate. In fact, in my opinion that would profoundly slow down the learning process. I also want to add that those dogs who are slow to bark, the 2-out-of 10 types, will at some point learn to do so as well, and again without capturing and cueing. So the question remains what is it about the makeup of a dog that compels it to bark?)